Enfrentar la etnografía.

Afinando la construcción de significado a través de métodos visuales




Palabras clave:

etnografía, imágenes, métodos cualitativos, métodos creativos, sociología


La etnografía sociológica ha ganado mayor aceptación entre los sociólogos debido a su capacidad para comprender la vida cotidiana a un nivel microsocial. El pensamiento inductivo desempeña un papel crucial en la formulación teórica, ya que la recopilación de datos conduce al surgimiento de hipótesis y destaca conexiones con patrones universales. Sin embargo, la literatura etnográfica tiende a centrarse más en técnicas de observación y descuida otros métodos de campo. Para abordar esta laguna, este artículo analiza el uso de métodos visuales, como sociogramas y dibujos hechos por participantes, en un estudio de caso. Estas herramientas mejoraron la profundidad del significado en el proceso de investigación etnográfica.



Los datos de descarga aún no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

  • Ricardo A. Ayala, Universidad de Las Américas

    Sociólogo egresado de la Universidad de Estrasburgo (Francia) y PhD por la Ghent University (Bélgica). Académico investigador en la Facultad de Salud y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Las Américas (Chile).

  • Tomás Koch, Universidad de Playa Ancha

    Sociólogo egresado de la Universidad Central de Chile y PhD por la Ghent University (Bélgica). Profesor asociado en la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Playa Ancha (Chile).


Allen, Q. (2012). Photographs and stories: ethics, benefits and dilemmas of using participant photography with Black middle-class male youth. Qualitative Research, 12(4), pp. 443-458.

Atkinson, P.; A. Coffey; S. Delamont; J. Lofland y L. Lofland (2007). Handbook of ethnography. Londres: Sage.

Ayala, R. y T. Koch (2019). The image of ethnography-Making sense of the social through images: A structured method. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919843014

Ayala, R. y T. Koch (2012). Facing ethnography: Non-conventional methods. Second Global Conference for Qualitative Health Research, Milán, 28 al 30 de junio.

Ayala, R.; T. Koch y H. Messing (2019). Understanding the prospect of success in professional training: an ethnography into the assessment of problem-based learning. Ethnography y Education, 14(1), pp. 65-83.

Becker, H. (2002). Visual evidence: A seventh man, the specified generalization, and the work of the reader. Visual Studies, 17(1), pp. 3-11.

Charmaz, K. (2008). Constructionism and the grounded theory method. En: J. Holstein y J. Gubrium. Handbook of constructionist research. Nueva York y Londres: Guilford, pp. 397-412.

Cooper, B.; J. Glaesser; R. Gomm y M. Hammersley (2012). Challenging the qualitative-quantitative divide. Explorations in case-focused casual analysis. Nueva York: Continuum.

Copeland, A. y D. Agosto (2012). Diagrams and relational maps: The use of graphic elicitation techniques with interviewing for data collection, analysis, and display. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(5), pp. 513-533.

Corbin, J. y A. Strauss (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13, pp. 3-21.

Denzin, N. (2010). Moments, mixed methods, and paradigm dialogs. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(6), pp. 419-427.

Desmond, M. (2014). Relational ethnography. Theory and Society, 43, pp. 547-579.

Donnelly, P. y J. Hogan (2013). Engaging students in the classroom: ‘How can I know what I think until I see what I draw?’ European Political Science, 12, pp. 365-383.

Duneier, M. (2012). Qualitative methods. En: G. Ritzer (ed.). The Wiley-Blackwell companion to sociology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 73-81.

Duneier, M. (2011). How not to lie in ethnography. Sociological Methodology, 41(1), pp. 1-11.

Emerson, R. (2009). Ethnography, interaction and ordinary trouble. Ethnography, 10(4), pp. 535-548.

Farnsworth, J. y B. Boon (2010). Analysing group dynamics within the focus group. Qualitative Research, 10(5), pp. 605-624.

Fielding, N. y J. Fielding (1986). Linking data: The articulation of qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Frey, L.; C. Botan y G. Kreps (2000). Investigating communication. An introduction to research methods. Needham Heights: Allyn y Bacon.

Gadamer, H. (1990[1967]). Truth and method. Nueva York: Crossroad.

Gilbert, D.; S. Fiske y G. Lindzey (1998). The handbook of social psychology. Nueva York: Random House.

Glaser, B. y A. Strauss (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Hawthorne: Aldine Publishing Company.

Goldthorpe, J. (2007). On sociology. Vol. 1. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Guillemin, M. (2004). Understanding illness: Using drawings as a research method. Qualitative Health Research, 14(2), pp. 272-289.

Hogan, B.; J. Carrasco y B. Wellman (2007). Visualizing personal networks: Working with participant-aided sociograms. Field Methods, 19(2), pp. 116-144.

Holen, A. (2000). The PBL group: self-reflections and feedback for improved learning and growth. Medical Teacher, 22(5), pp. 485-488.

Kearney, K. y A. Hyle (2004). Drawing out emotions: The use of participant-produced drawings in qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Research, 4(3), pp. 361-382.

Kirk, J. y M. Miller (1986). Reliability and validity in qualitative research. California: Sage Publications.

Knoblauch, H. (2005). Focused ethnography. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research [en línea], 6. Disponible en: <http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/20/43> [acceso 21/01/2017].

Konecki, K. (2011). Visual grounded theory: A methodological outline and examples from empirical work. Revija za Sociologiju, 41(2), pp. 131-160.

Koppitz, E. (1968). Psychological evaluation of children’s human figure drawings. Nueva York: Grune y Stratton.

Leonard, M. (2007). Children’s drawings as a methodological tool. Irish Journal of Sociology, 15(2), pp. 52-66.

Leonard, M. y M. McKnight (2014). Look and tell: using photo-elicitation methods with teenagers. Children’s Geographies, 13(6), pp. 629-642.

Levick, M. (1983). They could not talk and so they drew: Children’s styles of coping and thinking. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.

Malchiodi, C. (2012). Understanding children’s drawings. Nueva York: Guilford Press.

Moran-Ellis, J.; V. D. Alexander; A. Cronin; M. Dickinson; J. Fielding; J. Sleney y H. Thomas (2006). Triangulation and integration: processes, claims and implications. Qualitative Research, 6(1), pp. 45-59.

Morse, J. (1994). Designed funded qualitative research. En: N. K. Denzin y Y. S. Lincoln. Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 220-235.

Myers, O.; C. Saunders y E. Garret (2003). What do children think animals need? Aesthetic and psycho-social conceptions. Environmental Education Research, 9(3), pp. 305-325.

Nadai, E. y C. Maeder (2005). Fuzzy fields. Multi-sited ethnography in sociological research. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6, pp. 1-13.

Napoli, P. (1947). The interpretative aspects of finger-painting. Journal of Psychology, 23(1), pp. 93-132.

Nieminen, J.; P. Sauri y K. Lonka (2006). On the relationship between group functioning and study success in problem‐based learning. Medical Education, 40(1), pp. 64-71.

O’Reilly, M. y N. Parker (2012). Unsatisfactory saturation: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 13(2), pp. 190-197.

Packard, J. (2008). ‘I’m gonna show you what it’s really like out there’: The power and limitation of participatory visual methods. Visual Studies, 23(1), pp. 63-77.

Palmberg, I. y J. Kuru (2000). Outdoor activities as a basis for environmental responsibility. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4), pp. 32-36.

Pink, S. (2013). Doing visual ethnography. Londres: Sage.

Plummer, K. (1999). The ‘ethnographic society’ at century’s end: Clarifying the role of public ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28(6), pp. 641-649.

Plummer, K. (2007). The call of life stories in ethnographic research. En: P. Atkinson, S. Delamont, A. Coffey, J. Lofland y L. Lofland. Handbook of ethnography. Londres: Sage, pp. 395-406.

Schwandt, T. (1996). Farewell to criteriology. Qualitative Inquiry, 2(1), pp. 58-72.

Schwartz, D. (1989). Visual ethnography: Using photography in qualitative research. Qualitative Sociology, 12, pp. 119-154.

Schyns, B.; A. Tymon; T. Kiefer y R. Kerschreiter (2013). New ways to leadership development: A picture paints a thousand words. Management Learning, 44(1), pp. 11-24.

Shapiro, B. (1997). Objectivity, relativism, and truth in external financial reporting: What’s really at stake in the disputes? Accounting, Organizations and Society, 22(2), pp. 165-185.

Tay-Lim, J. y S. Lim (2013). Privileging younger children’s voices in research: Use of drawings and a co-construction process. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), pp. 65-83.

Tracy, S. (2010). Qualitative quality: eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), pp. 837-851.

Tracy, S.; P. Lutgen-Sandvik y J. Alberts (2006). Nightmares, demons and slaves: Exploring the painful metaphors of workplace bullying. Management Communication Quarterly, 20(2), pp. 148-185.

Umoquit, M.; P. Tso; T. Varga-Atkins; M. O’Brien y J. Wheeldon (2013). Diagrammatic elicitation: Defining the use of diagrams in data collection. The Qualitative Report, 18(60), pp. 1-12.

Venturelli, J. (1997). Educación médica: nuevos enfoques, metas y métodos. Washington: OPS.

Weed, M. (2008). A potential method for the interpretive synthesis of qualitative research: Issues in the development of ‘meta-interpretation’. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11(1), pp. 13-28.

Weed, M. (2005). Meta interpretation: A method for the interpretive synthesis of qualitative research. Forum: Qualitative Social Research [en línea], 6. Disponible en: <http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/508> [acceso 21/01/2017].




Cómo citar

Enfrentar la etnografía. : Afinando la construcción de significado a través de métodos visuales. (2024). Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 37(54). https://doi.org/10.26489/rvs.v37i54.8